I pride myself with having discerned even then the symptoms of what is so clear today, when a kind of family circle has gradually been formed, linking representatives of all nations, jolly empire-builders in their jungle clearings, French policemen, the unmentionable German product, the good old churchgoing Russian and Polish pogromshchik, the lean American lyncher, [and] the man with the bad teeth who squirts antiminority stories in the bar or the lavatory…

-Vladimir Nabokov, Speak, Memory

When one thinks of all the people who support or have supported Fascism, one stands amazed at their diversity. What a crew! … But the clue is really very simple. They are all people with something to lose, or people who long for a hierarchical society and dread the prospect of a world of free and equal human beings. Behind all the ballyhoo … lies the simple intention of those with money or privileges to cling to them. … All that the workingman demands is what these others would consider the indispensible minimum without which human life cannot be lived at all. … The question is very simple. Shall people … be allowed to live the decent, fully human life which is now technically achievable, or shan’t they? Shall common man be pushed back into the mud, or shall he not? I myself believe … that the common man will win his fight sooner or later, but I want it to be sooner and not later – some time within the next hundred years, say, and not some time within the next ten thousand years.

-George Orwell, Looking Back on the Spanish War

… Yet this does not alter the fact that the working class will go on struggling against Fascism after the others have caved in. The intelligentsia are the people who squeal the loudest against Fascism, and yet a respectable portion of them collapse into defeatism when the pinch comes. With the working class it is the other way about. Too ignorant to see through the trick that is being played on them, they easily swallow the promises of Fascism, yet sooner or later they always take up the struggle again. They must do so, because in their own bodies they always discover that the promises of Fascism cannot be fulfilled. To win over the working class permanently, the Fascists would have to raise the general standard of living, which they are unable and probably unwilling to do. The struggle of the working class is like the growth of a plant. The plant is blind and stupid, but it knows enough to keep pushing upwards towards the light and it will do this in the face of endless discouragements.

-George Orwell, Looking Back on the Spanish War

No one in his senses supposed that there was any hope for democracy … in a country so divided and exhausted as Spain would be when the war was over. It would have to be a dictatorship … . That meant that the general movement would be in the direction of some kind of Fascism. Fascism called, no doubt, by some politer name…

-George Orwell, Homage to Catalonia